Facilitation methods

There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.


It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.

Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed.

A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered.

Main Features of Lecture Method

Some of the main features of lecture method are:

  • Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings
  • Less expensive
  • Can be reached large number of people at once
  • Knowledge building exercise
  • Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity


This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to be more effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method.

To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer:

  • Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing
  • Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task
  • Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them
  • Explains why it should be carried out in that way

The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved, the more learning will occur.

The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows:

  • Cost of training facility for the program
  • Cost of materials that facilitate training
  • Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers
  • Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees
  • Cost related to creating content, material
  • Cost related to the organization of the training

After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or negative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why.


This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If the Discussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principle learning.

The Discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i.e. knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees, and then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to trainer.

Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enables the trainer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely it would help out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer may need to spend more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in a different manner.

Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the trainees ask questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer who asks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and responding questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and keep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions allow the trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. This activity helps in improving recall.


Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees’ job.

A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules.

Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation.

It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations.

Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are:

  • Challenge
  • Rules
  • Interactivity

These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning.

Some of the examples of this technique are:


Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance.

The various methods that come under Games and Simulations are:



Management Development has become very important in today’s competitive environment. According to a survey, those companies that align their management development with tactical planning are more competitive than the companies who are not. It has also been indicated that 80% of the companies report MDP, compared with 90% that provide executive leadership training. For most of the companies 37% of the training budgets go to management development and learning programs. Therefore, it is important to consider management development as an important part of organizational competitiveness.

Some of the reasons behind the management development programs are:

  • It is managements’ responsibility of ensuring the success of the organization
  • It is the management who deal with people of different background, culture, language, etc
  • Mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, etc are all under management’s control
  • It is managements’ responsibility to ensure that the employees obtain the required KSAs to perform the tasks
  • It is managements’ responsibility to ensure that right people is hired for the right job, at the right time for the right place
  • Manager’s job is complex i.e. for the managers understanding the training need is not easy because his training need is determined by how well his department is meeting its objective and goal.
  • It is the management who makes decisions on the basis of judgment and intuition
  • It is the manager who performs several routine duties as well as handling the exceptions in their own as well as subordinates’ routine
  • Managers are engaged in varied, discontinues, and brief activities
  • It is the management that understand the organization, its vision, mission, ethics, values, strategies, capabilities, and how his organization fits into the industry, and how his behavior will influence people outside the organization

Therefore, managers must be able to get the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) to meet the challenges as soon as they arise.


The most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on the job training. This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees. OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well.
This type of training often takes place at the work place in informal manner.

Some key points on on the job Training

on the job Training is characterized by following points

  • It is done on ad-hoc manner with no formal procedure, or content
  • At the start of training, or during the training, no specific goals or objectives are developed
  • Trainers usually have no formal qualification or training experience for training
  • Training is not carefully planned or prepared
  • The trainers are selected on the basis of technical expertise or area knowledge

Formal OJT programs are quite different from informal OJT. These programs are carried out by identifying the employees who are having superior technical knowledge and can effectively use one-to-one interaction technique.

The procedure of formal on the job training program is:

  1. The participant observes a more experienced, knowledgeable, and skilled trainer (employee)
  1. The method, process, and techniques are well discussed before, during and after trainer has explained about performing the tasks
  1. When the trainee is prepared, the trainee starts performing on the work place
  1. The trainer provides continuing direction of work and feedback
  1. The trainee is given more and more work so that he accomplishes the job flawlessly

The four techniques for on the job development are:



There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:




Few years ago, ABC Company developed a training strategy for training its global sales force. An important feature of the strategy was to create a master training plan for each year. The organization’s strategic plans, objectives, and functional tactics would drive this plan. Once an initial procedure was designed it was then evaluated and critiqued by the top management, different units, and training council. The input from these stakeholders would be summarized and transferred into a master training plan.

The major question that was asked by the designers of training program was, “what results do we want from salespeople after the training program is over?” Answer to this

question becomes the objective of the training program.

Then training content was designed, videos were made. The videos took 3 to 6 months to produce. Video contains live production plants, clients’ offices, partner offices, suppliers, manufacturers’ locations, and other locations.

Videos were used to train sales people in various areas, such as:

  • Market information i.e. about customer profile, market updates, and computer integrated manufacturing applications, etc
  • Sales Process i.e. how to deal in the situation of conflicts with customer, coaching on undesirable behavior, supplement skills developed during live courses
  • Product information, such as, product usage, applications, system description, product description, comparison with competitor’s products, etc
  • Policies and procedures, i.e. about sales contests, incentive plans on achieving targets, annual bonuses, winners receiving the best salesperson award to motivate the sales force

Around thousands of sales persons were getting a specific video training. The sales people were getting training material along with the video. Sales representatives then watch video, follow the directions, and refer to the material if faces any problem. When salespeople feel they have mastered the material, they would take an exam and call a toll-free number to transmit responses to exam.

Salespeople who successfully passed an exam were factored into performance and merit reviews as well as promotional opportunities. Those who couldn’t pass the exam were asked to go through the material and video again before retaking the exam. If the salesperson failed an exam again, the reporting manager was notified.


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